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Prostate Cancer Treatment Options by Stage

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Stage I Prostate Cancer

Standard treatment of stage I prostate cancer may include the following:

  • Watchful waiting.
  • Active surveillance. If the cancer begins to grow, hormone therapy may be given.
  • Radical prostatectomy, usually with pelvic lymphadenectomy. Radiation therapy may be given after surgery.
  • External radiation therapy. Hormone therapy may be given after radiation therapy.
  • Internal radiation therapy with radioactive seeds .
  • A clinical trial of high-intensity–focused ultrasound therapy.
  • A clinical trial of photodynamic therapy.
  • A clinical trial of cryosurgery.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

Stage II Prostate Cancer

Standard treatment of stage II prostate cancer may include the following:

  • Watchful waiting.
  • Active surveillance. If the cancer begins to grow, hormone therapy may be given.
  • Radical prostatectomy, usually with pelvic lymphadenectomy. Radiation therapy may be given after surgery.
  • External radiation therapy. Hormone therapy may be given after radiation therapy.
  • Internal radiation therapy with radioactive seeds.
  • A clinical trial of cryosurgery.
  • A clinical trial of high-intensity–focused ultrasound therapy.
  • A clinical trial of proton beam radiation therapy.
  • A clinical trial of photodynamic therapy.
  • Clinical trials of new types of treatment, such as hormone therapy followed by radical prostatectomy.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

Stage III Prostate Cancer

Standard treatment of stage III prostate cancer may include the following:

  • External radiation therapy. Hormone therapy may be given after radiation therapy.
  • Hormone therapy. Radiation therapy may be given after hormone therapy.
  • Radical prostatectomy. Radiation therapy may be given after surgery.
  • Watchful waiting.
  • Active surveillance. If the cancer begins to grow, hormone therapy may be given.

Treatment to control cancer that is in the prostate and lessen urinary symptoms may include the following:

  • External radiation therapy.
  • Internal radiation therapy with radioactive seeds.
  • Hormone therapy.
  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
  • A clinical trial of new types of radiation therapy.
  • A clinical trial of cryosurgery.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

Stage IV Prostate Cancer

Standard treatment of stage IV prostate cancer may include the following:

  • Hormone therapy.
  • Hormone therapy combined with chemotherapy.
  • Bisphosphonate therapy.
  • External radiation therapy. Hormone therapy may be given after radiation therapy.
  • Alpha emitter radiation therapy.
  • Watchful waiting.
  • Active surveillance. If the cancer begins to grow, hormone therapy may be given.
  • A clinical trial of radical prostatectomy with orchiectomy.

Treatment to control cancer that is in the prostate and lessen urinary symptoms may include the following:

  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
  • Radiation therapy.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Navigating Care disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information. This information was sourced and adapted from Adapted from the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Cancer Information Summaries on www.cancer.gov.

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